The International Journal of Abrasive Technology (IJAT) is a fully refereed journal that publishes peer-reviewed quality papers in the area of abrasive technology covering theoretical and applied research, new technologies and applications. Under the leadership of Editor in Chief Jun Wang, The University of New South Wales, IJAT is published by Inderscience Publishers

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Following are the table of contents and article abstracts for current issues.
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Grind-hardening of steel surfaces: a focused review
L.C. Zhang
Abstract: Surface hardening of steel components using grinding-induced heat seems to be a cost-effective technique for production. This paper provides a review focusing on the research effort on grind-hardening in the author's Laboratory for Precision and Nano-processing Technologies. The discussion includes the mechanisms of heating and cooling, microstructural changes in workpiece materials, surface integrity generation and wear and fatigue behaviour of ground components
Keywords: grinding; surface hardening; phase transformation; compressed air; liquid nitrogen; residual stress; wear; fatigue; abrasive technology; steel surfaces; grind-hardening; heating; cooling; microstructure; surface integrity. link
Characteristics of ductile mode chip formation in nanoscale cutting of brittle materials
Xiaoping Li, Minbo Cai, Kui Liu, Mustafizur Rahman
Abstract:A comprehensive study of the machining characteristics of nanoscale ductile mode cutting of brittle materials, covering the critical cutting conditions for the ductile mode of chip formation, cutting conditions for crack initiation in the chip formation zone, effect of the cutting edge radius, machined workpiece surface and subsurface damage, effect of ultrasonic vibration assistance, mechanism of nanoscale ductile mode chip formation, cutting forces, tool wear and dynamic hard particles in the chip formation zone. Systematic experiments for nanoscale cutting of a number of brittle materials, including tungsten carbide, silicon and glass, are conducted and Molecular Dynamics (MD) modelling and simulation for nanoscale cutting of monocrystalline silicon are carried out. The results are shown in detail in the paper.
Keywords: brittle materials; ductile mode; chip formation; nanomachining; molecular dynamics; machining characteristics; ultrasonic vibration; cutting edge effect; cutting forces; tool wear; dynamic hard particles; nanomanufacturing; abrasive technology; nanoscale cutting; crack initiation; modelling; simulation; monocrystalline silicon. link
Application of ice-air jet blasting in treatment of sensitive surfaces
Krzysztof Kluz, Ernest S. Geski
Abstract:Application of water ice particles for precision cleaning was investigated experimentally. Several setups for ice particle generation and blasting were constructed. It was suggested that an efficient technology for formation of particles, in the range of 0.3–2.0 mm, involves ice crushing during water solidification. Freezing of water mist in a nitrogen bath constitutes the efficient technique to generate particles in the range of 15–25 microns. It was shown that ice-air jet containing larger particles is suitable for precision decontamination of metal, plastic, electronic and electromechanical parts, while the micron size particles are appropriate for processing of substrates in biomedical and food industries.
Keywords: ice blasting; sensitive surfaces; dermatology; abrasive technology; ice-air jet blasting; precision cleaning; ice particle generation; precision decontamination; substrate processing; metals; plastics; electronics; electromechanical parts; biomedical industry; food industry. link
Grinding characteristics of engineering ceramics in high speed regime
Han Huang, Ling Yin
Abstract:Summarizes the high speed grinding characteristics of engineering ceramics. The performance in high speed grinding was compared with that of conventional speed grinding. Normal and tangential grinding forces and Acoustic Emission (AE) energy were measured to characterise the material removal characteristics of five polycrystalline ceramics. It was found that the microstructure and properties of the ceramic materials have significant influence on the removal and formation of their ground surfaces. Experimental results also demonstrated that grinding-induced vibration and coolant supply in high speed grinding of engineering ceramics are critical factors for achieving a satisfactory grinding performance.
Keywords: high speed grinding; engineering ceramics; grindability; microstructure; surface damage; abrasive technology; grinding forces; acoustic emission; material removal; polycrystalline ceramics; vibration; coolant supply; grinding performance. link
Fabrication and evaluation for extremely thin Si wafer
Libo Zhou, Bahman Soltani Hosseini, Tatsuya Tsuruga, Jun Shimizu, Hiroshi Eda, Sumio Kamiya, Hisao Iwase, Yoshiaki Tashiro
Abstract:Grinding process on the Si wafer develops subsurface damage, which remarkably degrades deflective strength of the wafer and constitutes a barrier against producing a thin wafer for low-profile packaging. In this paper, the authors propose a new index for evaluation of the Degree of Subsurface Damage (DSD). Requiring no costly instrument, the new index is easily calculated via the external geometry of the ground wafer. With the new index, it is able to quantitatively evaluate the subsurface damage introduced by different processes (or wheel) and to estimate the minimally achievable thickness of the wafer by each process. Also, a novel fixed abrasive process of Chemo-Mechanical Grinding (CMG) has been proposed for stress relief. All results indicate that the subsurface damage after CMG is nearly zero.
Keywords: thin silicon wafers; subsurface damage index; residual stress; damaged layer depth; fixed abrasive process; abrasive technology; chemo-mechanical grinding; CMG. link
Design and implementation of an intelligent grinding assistant system
Michael N. Morgan, Rui Cai, Andrea Guidotti, David R. Allanson, J.L. Moruzzi, W. Brain Rowe
Abstract:In modern competitive manufacturing industry, machining processes are expected to deliver products with high accuracy and assured surface integrity, using shorter cycle times with reduced operator intervention and increased flexibility. To meet such demands, the trend towards increased use of machine intelligence in machining systems and operations is clear and unlikely to be revised. This paper describes the structure, content and relations employed in a fully integrated intelligent grinding system for adaptive controlled cycle optimisation, thermal damage avoidance, dressing interval optimisation and data retention. This system, termed: 'Intelligent Grinding Assistant' (IGA©) is a unique, robust and versatile software system with embedded links and protocols for communication with the Computer Numerical Control (CNC) and instrumentation of a grinding machine. The IGA© was evaluated and implemented on a commercially available production machine and had its international launch in September 2005. The CNC, machine tool instrumentation, process monitoring and data analysis systems, Profibus link, and control strategies all constituted the IGA© system. Grinding performance was monitored and assessed in real time. An intelligent database was also developed to support the IGA© in the provision of optimised and/or safe starting cycle data to the operator/adaptive system and in the selective retention of data. Importantly, the IGA© has been designed and implemented in a way to ensure that an operator can readily use the system and achieve process improvement without recourse to extensive training.
Keywords: intelligent grinding; grinding assistant; artificial intelligence; adaptive control; thermal model; grinding kinematics; abrasive technology; optimisation; dressing interval; data retention; CNC grinding; machine tool instrumentation; process monitoring; data analysis. link
Electrolytic conditioning of resin-metal-bonded diamond grinding wheels
Nobuhito Yoshihara, Mingxia Ma, Jiwang Yan, Tsunemoto Kuriyagawa
Abstract:Recently, high form accuracy and smooth surface are two important requirements in manufacturing of optical parts. It is quite difficult to meet these two demands at the same time. To achieve a high form accuracy, a grinding wheel must have a hard body. On the other hand, to achieve a good finish the surface of the grinding wheel must be soft. As a result, the grinding wheel is required to have such antithetical characteristics. To give a grinding wheel both of these characters, electrolytic conditioning is proposed in this paper. When this conditioning technique is used for dressing a resin-metal-bonded grinding wheel, only a thin layer on the grinding wheel surface will become soft, while the wheel body remains hard. Consequently, high form accuracy and smooth surfaces can be achieved using electrolytic conditioned grinding wheels.
Keywords: electrolytic conditioning; resin-metal bonded grinding wheels; precision grinding; optical parts; diamond grinding wheels; abrasive technology; grinding accuracy; smooth surfaces; surface roughness. link


Modelling of piezoelectric micropositioning system using direct mapping and numerical analysis for precision grinding process control
Y. Gao, S. Tse
Abstract:For micro/nano positioning systems using piezoelectric actuators for precision grinding process control, sinusoidal command signals will be used and will give additional problems in comparison with the commonly used step signals due to the hysteresis effect, which require good modelling of the effect. To avoid discontinuity in obtaining the values of the piezoelectric constant, a method of direct mapping with polynomial fit has been proposed. Compared with the single polynomial approach, the model obtained was able to reduce the modelling error by 6.5%. To further reduce the modelling error, a new method using direct mapping and numerical analysis is proposed while discontinuity is avoided. Theoretical and experimental studies are conducted and comparative studies are made. Compared with the single polynomial approach, it is able to reduce the modelling error to 7.3%, which is 45.5% lower. Compared with the direct mapping with polynomial approach, the proposed method is able to reduce the modelling error by 41.7%. For a typically fast piezoelectric micro/nano positioning system, hysteresis distortion is more significant towards modelling error than dynamic distortion. The proposed new approach should be useful in precision grinding process control.
Keywords: micropositioning; nanopositioning; piezoelectric hysteresis; direct mapping; numerical analysis; precision grinding; process control; sinusoidal command signals; modelling; piezoelectric actuators. link
An ultra-precision polishing technique using high-velocity abrasive fluid
Yongbo Wu, Tsunemoto Kuriyagawa
Abstract:A newly developed method of high-velocity fluid polishing using an ultra fine abrasive wheel. In the first part of this process, the workpiece is ground by a wheel; then the wheel is drawn back for a few µm and the ground surface is polished with a fine abrasive polishing fluid that flows at a high velocity between the wheel and the workpiece. In the conventional finishing process of optical and electrical components such as lenses and mirrors, some complicated processes including grinding and polishing are required. With the new method, the workpiece is finished successively by grinding and polishing on the same machine using the same polishing tool (wheel). In this work, an experimental system capable of successively grinding and polishing an optical component on the same machine was established, and experiments involving optical glass specimens were conducted in order to examine the proposed new method. The experimental results indicated that the workpiece was finished precisely and efficiently with an optimal surface roughness of 9 nm Ra after polishing.
Keywords: loose abrasive machining; ultra-precision polishing; high velocity fluids; surface roughness; ultra-fine abrasive wheels; optical components; optical glass. link
Synthesis of nanocrystalline diamond films on smooth WC-Co cemented carbide substrates
F.H. Sun, Z.M. Zhang, Y.P. Ma, M. Chen
Abstract:Nanocrystalline Diamond Films (NDFs) are deposited on WC-Co cemented carbide substrates by the bias-enhanced hot filament Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD). A new pretreatment method is performed to diffuse boron into WC-Co substrate without surface roughening of smooth substrates. The new CVD processes are used to enhance the secondary nucleation, reduce the grain size of nandiamond and promote the growth of NDFs by appropriately increasing acetone concentration, lowering the reactive gases pressure and adding Ar gas in the reactive gases. Research results show that the boronization pretreatment can result in the formation of the stable cobalt boride compounds on the substrate surface, thus effectively ensure the adhesion of smooth diamond films. NDFs consist of nanocrystalline diamond with grain sizes range from 20 to 60 nm. The surface roughness of NDFs is measured at Ra < 50 nm. The diamond-coated drawing dies with these NDFs show obvious effect in the practical application.
Keywords: hot filament CVD; nanocrystalline diamond films; NDF; WC-Co substrate; diamond-coated dies; cemented carbide substrates; chemical vapour deposition; nanodiamnond; secondary nucleation; grain size reduction; boronization pretreatment; adhesion; smooth diamond films. link
On grindability of Inconel 718 under high efficiency deep grinding by monolayer cBN wheel
D.V. Patil, S. Ghosh, A. Ghosh, A.K. Chattopadhyay, A.B. Chattopadhyay
Abstract:The Nickel-based superalloy, Inconel 718, for its several unique properties, such as high hot strength and resistance to heat, fatigue and corrosion is essentially used in aerospace, nuclear and petrochemical industries for making their salient components which are subjected to high stress and temperature, dynamic loading and corrosive environment. But machining and grinding of this alloy is quite difficult for its high strength, work hardening and poor thermal properties. Researchers are continuing to study the nature, extent and actual causes behind the difficulties of machining and grinding of Inconel 718 aiming improvement in productivity, product quality and overall economy in machining and grinding of Inconel 718. The main objective of the present work is to investigate the role of use of monolayer cBN wheel and High Efficiency Deep Grinding (HEDG) on grindability of Inconel 718 in terms of chip formation, grinding forces and specific energy requirement. The encouraging results indicate that Inconel 718 becomes reasonably well-grindable under HEDG by cBN wheel and mainly for unique favourable properties of the microcrystalline cBN wheel, very small chip load per tooth and more effective fluid application.
Keywords: high efficiency deep grinding; HEDG; Inconel 718; work hardening; microcrystalline cBN wheels; superalloys; machinability; grindability; chip formation; grinding forces; energy requirements. link
Experimental and simulation studies on temperature field of 40Cr steel surface layer in grind-hardening
L. Zhang, P.Q. Ge, J.H. Zhang, Z.J. Zhu, Z.Y. Luan
Abstract:The grinding heat is utilised to induce martensitic phase transformation and strengthen the surface layer of 40Cr steel by raising surface temperature higher than austenitic temperature and cooling quickly. Experiments were performed with different grinding conditions. Semi-natural thermocouple is used to measure the temperature field development of 40Cr steel surface layer in grind-hardening. Temperature field development of alloy steel 40Cr is simulated by finite element method in grind-hardening. Comparison between simulated results obtained from the finite element model and experiment results reveals a good agreement. The maximal surface temperature is smaller when the table speed is slower, but the hardness depth is deeper.
Keywords: grind hardening; temperature field simulation; thermocouple; 40Cr steel; surface layers; martensitic phase transformation; surface temperature; grinding conditions; finite element method; FEM. link
Neural network parametric modelling of abrasive waterjet cutting quality
Lin Yang, Jun Song, Biaohui Hu
Abstract:Abrasive Waterjet (AWJ) can provide very effective means for shape cutting of difficult-to-machine materials. One of the principal deficiencies of AWJ cutting process is the wavy striation on the generated cut surface in relatively thick workpieces or high traverse speed. It is therefore essential to predict the main AWJ processing parameters to achieve a desired cutting quality. But many aspects about this technology are neither fully understood nor have they been accurately modelled. In this paper, based on the experimental data, an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) parametric model of AWJ cutting process was developed and used in CNC machines. The predicted results indicated that the model could identify the cutting quality to a high desirable accuracy, and the ANN can be used as an appropriate method for prediction of cutting parameters in AWJ systems.
Keywords: abrasive waterjets; AWJ; waterjet cutting; surface quality; parametric modelling; artificial neural networks; ANN; process parameters; CNC machining. link
Numerical modelling of kerf geometry in abrasive water jet machining
Ambuj Saxena, S. Paul
Abstract:Abrasive Water Jet (AWJ) machining is gaining acceptance and popularity under actual shop floor conditions as a mature machining technology. This requires thorough experimental and numerical research to utilise the full potential of the technology. This work proposes a numerical modelling technique to study the effect of different process parameters on kerf characteristics. The implemented numerical model not only captures the individual effect of process parameters on kerf characteristics like depth of penetration, kerf shape and surface roughness, but also most importantly matches the trend between two processed features of the kerf namely Taper quality parameter and Cutting ability parameter.
Keywords: abrasive waterjets; waterjet cutting; AWJ; numerical modelling; kerf characteristics; taper quality; cutting ability; process parameters; depth of penetration; kerf shape; surface roughness. link
Influence of current density on the characteristics of diamond grains-nickel super-thin cutting blade fabricated by electrotyping
L.L. Fang, B.L. Zhang, J.C. Deng, N. Yao
Abstract:Free-standing diamond grains-nickel composite films were deposited by using electrotyping method at the condition of low internal stress electrolytic solution. The effect of electric current density on the diamond grain concentration, surface morphology, microstrain (or lattice strain) and deposition rate of the film was studied. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) were used to analyse the characteristics of the films. It was found that the diamond grain concentration in the film varied with current density and approached to its maximum value when the current density was at the range of 1.3–2.5 A/dm˛. The microstrain in the film decreased from 0.36 to 0.28% with increase of the current density from 1.3 to 3.3 A/dm˛. The deposition rate of the film increased with an increase of current density. The film with the best possible density and uniformity was obtained at the current density range of 1.3–2.0 A/dm˛. The composite films obtained in this study can be used to make super-thin cutting blade for cutting Integrated Circuit (IC) silicon chips as well as other electronic devices.
Keywords: diamond grains; nickel; super-thin cutting blades; electrotyping; electric current density; diamond grain content; microstrain; deposition rate; scanning electron microscope; SEM; x-ray diffraction; XRD; surface morphology; lattice strain; integrated circuits; silicon chips. link