coversm.jpg - 191186    bytes HANDBOOK OF ADVANCED CERAMICS MACHINING
EDITED    by IOAN D.MARINESCU
2007 Taylor and Francis
ISBN 13: 978-0-8493-3837-3

$230 plus s&h from the Abrasive Engineering Society
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The latest developments in machining of advance ceramics written by authors who have spent their carerrs studying ceramic machining and ceramic stock removal mechanisms. Dr. Steve Malkin summarizes his work in chapter 3 on the mechanisms of grinding ceramic, a topic covered in his many years of research. Chapter 4, strength of ceramics, reflects the work of Dr. John Mayer, University of Texas who spent decades studying this aspect of ceramics. The chapters on ELID grinding are the work of Dr. Ohmori, who first introduced the methods, and his students who are on the forefront of this promising new technology. Another example of new technologies is application of centerless grinding with diamond coated abrasive belts where stock removal is a primary consideration - work understudy at the University of Toledo.
AUTHORS
Th. Ardelt
    Institute for Machine Tools and Factory Management, Technical University of Berlin, Germany
B.P. Bandyopadhyay
   University of North Dakota, Grand Forks
1. Benea
    Vice President, Superabrasives of Engis Co., Wheeling, Illinois
R. Coman
   Precision Micro Machining Center, College of Engineering, University of Toledo, Ohio
N.A. Daus
   Institute for Machine Tools and Factory Management, Technical University of Berlin, Germany
G. Dontu
   Diamond Abrasive Company, New York, New York
H. Eda
    Saint Gobain Abrasives Company, Romulus, Michigan
M. Hitchiner
   Saint Gobain Abrasives Company, Romulus, Michigan
S.E. Holl
   Institute for Machine Tools and Factory Management, Technical University of Berlin, Germany
T.D. Howes
    Center for Grinding R&D, University of Connecticut, Storrs
T.W. Hwang
    Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Massachusetts, Amherst
K. Katahira
    Materials Fabrication Laboratory, RIKEN, Saitamaken, Japan
T. Kato
   Materials Fabrication Laboratory, RIKEN, Saitamaken, Japan
J. Laufer
    Institute for Machine Tools and Factory Management, Technical University of Berlin, Germany
A. Makinouchi
    Materials Fabrication Laboratory, RIKEN, Saitamaken, Japan
S. Malkin
   Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Massachusetts, Amherst
I.D. Marinescu
    Precision Micro Machining Center, College of Engineering, University of Toledo, Ohio
J.E. Mayer, Jr.
   Texas A&M University, College Station
J. Webster
   Cool?Grind Technologies LLC, Storrs, Connecticut
H. Ohmori
   Materials Fabrication Laboratory, RIKEN, Saitarnaken, Japan
M. Pruteanu
   Inasco Inc., Quakertown, Pennsylvania
J.Ramirez Salas
   Precision Micro Machining Center, College of Engineering, University of Toledo, Ohio
C.E. Spanu
   Geiser Tool Company, Ventura, California
G. Spur
   Institute of Machine Tools and Factory Management, Technical University of Berlin, Germany
TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. Ductile Grinding of Ceramics: Machine Tool and Process
   by H. Eda.....1
2. Ductile Mode Ultra Smoothness Grinding of Fine Ceramics with Coarse Grain Size Diamond Wheels
   by H. Yasui .....29
3. Mechanisms for Grinding of Ceramics
   by S. Malkin and T.W. Hwang..... 55
4. Grinding of Ceramics with Attention to Strength and Depth of Grinding Damage
   by J.E. Mayer Jr......87
5. Highly Efficient and Ultraprecision Fabrication of Structural Ceramic Parts with the Application of Electrolytic In-Process Dressing Grinding
   by B.P. Bandilovadhyay, H. Ohmori, and A. Makinouchi.....109
6. Electrolytic In-Process Dressing Grinding of Ceramic Materials
   by H. Ohmori and K. Katahira.....147
7. High?Efficiency Belt Centerless Grinding of Ceramic Materials and Hardened Tool Steel
   by G. Dontu, D. Wu, and I.D. Marinescu.....179
8. AE Monitoring of the Lapping Process
M. Pruteanu, R. Coman, and I.D. Marinescu ..... 193
9. Effectiveness of ELID Grinding and Polishing .....203
   by C.E. Spanu and I.D. Marinescu
10. Mon? Versus Polycrystalline Diamond Lapping of Ceramics
   by M. Pruteanu, L Benea, and I.D. Marinescu.....247
11. Double Fracture Model in Lapping of Ceramics
   by I.D. Marinescu.....257
12. Double Side Grinding of Advanced Ceramics with Diamond Wheels
   by C.E. Spanu, I.D. Marinescu, and M. Hitchiner.....263
13. Super Polishing of Magnetic Heads
   by J. Ramirez Salas and I.D. Marinescu .....283
14. Laser Assisted Grinding of Ceramics
   by I.D. Marinescu, T.D. Howes and J. Webster.....293
15. Tribological Properties of ELID Grinding Wheel
   by Based on In-Process Observation Using a CCD Microscope Tribosystem
   by T. Kato, H. Ohmori, and I.D. Marinescu.....301
16. Developments in Machining of Ceramic Materials
   by E. Uhlmann, S.?E. Holl, Th. Ardelt, and J. Laufer.....313
17. Ultrasonic Machining of Ceramics
   by G. Spur, E. Uhlmann, S.?E. Holl, and N.A. Daus.....327

Index ......355
SUBJECT INDEX
Abrasive belt centerless grinding, 180, 181
Abrasive, grinding wheel, wear mode, 304, 305
ACME Model 47 Belt Centerless Grinder, 183
Acoustic emission monitoring lapping process, 193, 201 data analysis, 197, 201 energy per unit time analysis, 198, 201 experimental conditions, 198 experimental procedure, 197 experimental setup, 195, 196 methodology, 195, 197 related work on, 194, 195 workpiece material properties, 196
Advanced ceramic industry sales, 89
Advanced structural ceramic materials, applications, 88, 89
AE monitoring, see Acoustic emission monitoring
Alumina, see Aluminum oxide (A1203) ceramics
Alumina and zirconium oxide, honing, 316
Aluminum nitride (AIN) ceramics ELID grinding characteristics analysis of modified surface, 174, 176 Auger electron spectroscopy analysis, 174, 175 experimental setup, 164, 167 hardness measurements using nanoindenter, 172, 173 mesh size and surface roughness, 165, 166 observations of ground surface, 167, 172 SEM images of ground surface, 167, 169, 172
surface evaluation and testing, 165 surface modifying effect, 168, 172, 174 wheel mesh size and removal mechanism, 168,172 x, ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis, 174, 176 surface modifying effects, 164, 176
Aluminum oxide (A1203) ceramics, 88, 91,258 annealing temperature and bending strength, 139, 140 creep feed grinding, 346 effect of adjacent scratches on stock, 69, 70 laser, assisted grinding, 294, 295 ultrasonic, assisted grinding, 346, 349, 350
Atomic force micrograph, 110
Atomic force microscopy (AFM), 110, 138, 139,143

B
Brittle, ductile transition, 6, 9, 16
Brittle fracture energy, grinding energy, 74, 78
Brittle materials behavior in plastic flow zone, 5 brittle, ductile transition, 6,9,16 ductile, mode machining of, 5 grinding, 4, 9 machining, 6 strain, 2, 3 stress, strain diagram, 2, 5
Brittle, mode grinding, 110, 148
Brittle, mode transition, 138
Bronze, bonded (BB) diamond grinding wheel, 113, 120, 122, 130,139
Bronze, bonded grinding wheels, 120

C
Cast and sintered silicon nitride (Si3N4), see Silicon nitride
Cast iron, bonded diamond (CIB, D) grinding wheel, 110, 112,130,148, 209, 210
Cast iron fiber, bonded (CIFB) grinding wheels, 120, 122, 123, 130
Cast iron fiber, bonded diamond (CIFB, D) grinding wheels, 125, 127,135,211
Cast iron powder, bonded grinding wheels, 120
CCD microscope tribosystem, in, process observation of ELID, grinding wheel, 301, 311
Centerless grinding, see Abrasive belt centerless grinding; ELID centerless grinding
Ceramic materials, 88, 90 applications of advanced structural, 88, 89 developments in machining, 313, 325 experiments for, 183, 184 grinding of, cooling lubrication in, 320, 325 grinding with lapping kinematics, 317, 320 application and prospect, 318, 320 machining process, 318, 319 process technology, 317, 318 high, efficiency belt centerless grinding, 179, 192 benefits, 192 depth of cut vs. belt speed, 186, 188 diameter, weight, surface roughness vs belt speed, 184, 185 experiments, 183, 184 material removal rate vs. belt speed, 186,188, 189 objectives, 182 problem definition, 181, 182 problem encountered and possible reasons, 191 results of experiments, 184, 190 stock removal vs. belt speed, 186, 189 surface roughness vs. belt speed, 186,189, 190
honing, 316, 317 machinability ultrasonic, assisted grinding, 344, 345 ultrasonic lapping, 334, 335 machining cooling lubrication, 320, 325 developments in, 313, 325 grinding with lapping kinematics, 317, 320 honing, 316, 317 properties, 90
Ceramics, see also Ceramic materials abrasive material removal mechanisms, 234 advantages, 111 crack growth rate, 1, 3, 4 ductile behavior, 9, 15 in, site observation of ductile mode, 10, 15 scratch at brittle, mode, 9, 10, 12, 13 ductile, mode grinding, 15, 18, 294 ELID grinding abrasive, workpiece interactions mechanisms, 213 brittle, regime grinding, 214, 216 ductile regime grinding, 213, 214,217 indentation, fracture mechanics, 213 machining approach, 213 material removal mechanisms, 213, 216 fracture toughness, 1, 2 GMA technology, 21, 25 high, speed grinding, 294 lapping, 247, 256 laser, assisted grinding, 293, 299 experimental results and discussions, 295, 297 experimental setup, 294, 295 future directions and research, 297, 299 ground surface with laser heat, 298 ground surface without heat, 297 micro, fracture, 296 problem statement, 294 stock removal mechanism, 297, 299 machine tools for ductile grinding, 18, 27
machining, 257, 258 and metals, 1, 4 micro, and macrocracks, 3, 4 microfracture, 259, 260 mono vs polycrystalline diamond lapping, 247, 256 structure and properties, 211 ultrasmoothness grinding, 30 ultrasonic lapping, 328, 330, 342 Weibull coefficient, 1, 3
Ceramics grinding, see also Ductile, mode ultra, smoothness grinding; Ultra, smoothness grinding indentation fracture mechanics, 55, 67 lateral cracking and crushing, 65, 67 machining approach, 55, 67 material removal in, 136 mechanisms for, 55, 82,136 median, radial cracks, 55, 67 microbrittle fracture mechanism, 136 moving indentor, 62, 67 static indentor, 57, 62 strength and depth of grinding damage, 88, 106
Ceramic spherical lens molds ELID centerless grinding, 162, 164 elements, 161 experimental setup, 162 ground lens mold, 164 mechanism, 160, 162 surface roughness and topography, 162, 163
Coarse, grain, size diamond wheels experimental procedure, 30, 32 table speed influence, 32, 39 ultra, smoothness grinding, 29, 53 wheel speed influence, 39, 43 workpiece material influence, 43, 46
Cobalt, bonded (CB) grinding wheels, 120,122, 123,130
Conventional grinding, ELID grinding and, 125, 128, 134, 143
Cooling lubrication ceramic materials grinding, 320, 325 cleaning system, 324, 325 facts, 320 feed system, 324 grinding wheel specification and topography, 321, 323
physiological, ecological and economic aspects, 323, 324 setting conditions, 320, 321 technological aspects of selection, 320, 323
Creep feed grinding, 345, 346
Critical loads, to propagate subsurface damage, 215, 216
Cubic boron nitride (cBN) wheels, 211
Cutting, stress distribution in workspace during, 7, 8

D
Depth of damage RBSN Ceramic, 101, 102 strategy for minimum grinding time, 105 Zirconia, toughened alumina ceramic, 101, 103
Diamond grinding wheels characteristics, 225 grain size, 135, 136, 225 grit size of, 93, 95 radial wear gradient of, 279
Diamond lapping, 90
Double fracture model lapping of ceramics apparatus, 260, 261 experimental procedures, 258, 261 materials, 258, 260 methodology, 261
Double side grinding (DSG) advanced ceramics with diamond wheels, 263, 280 components of system of, 265 experimental results of, 277, 280 experimental validation, 276, 278 geometrical model for, 267 kinematical model, 265, 271, 280 regression models, 277 trajectory simulation, 271, 276 values of parameters for test runs, 276
Ductile ceramic chips, 260
Ductile materials, strain of, 2, 3
Ductile microgrinding machine tool design criteria of, 18, 21 GMA technology, 21, 25 technologies of, 21, 27
Ductile, mode grinding, 110, 148, 213, see also Ductile, mode ultra, smoothness grinding
Ductile, mode transition, 138
Ductile, mode ultra, smoothness grinding with coarse, grain, size diamond wheels, 29, 53 experimental procedure, 30, 32 method, 46, 49 results, 49, 51 table speed influence, 32, 39 wheel speed influence, 39, 43 workpiece material influence, 43, 48
Dynamometer, 110, 119, 120

E
ED truing system, see Electrodischarge truing system
Efficient high, strength finish grinding of ceramics guidelines, 99, 100
Electrochemical grinding (ECG), 113, 204,218
Electrodischarge truing (ED truing) system, 110, 116, 117, 148,151, 153 ELID centerless grinder, 156, 157
Electrolytic in, process dressing, see ELID
ELID abrasives, 204
ELID centerless grinder, electrodischarge truing, 156, 157
ELID centerless grinding, see also ELID grinding ceramic spherical lens molds, 162, 164 efficient and precision, of zirconia ceramics, 155, 160 elements, 161 experimental setup, 155, 157, 161, 162,164 ground lens mold, 164 mechanism, 160, 162 results and analysis, 157, 160, 174, 176 silicon nitride (Si3N4) ceramics, 157, 158 steps for efficient and precision, 156 surface roughness and in, feed speed, 157 topography, 162, 163 total depth of cut, 158 zirconia ceramics, 155, 160
ELID CG, Grinding, see ELID centerless grinding
ELID face grinding, principle, 219
ELID grinding applications, 218, 242 bearing steels grinding, 230, 234
roughness vs traverse and plunge grinding, 230, 231
roundness vs traverse and plunge grinding, 233
waviness vs traverse and plunge grinding, 230, 232, 234 with bronze and cobalt, bonded wheels, 130, 132 carbon fiber reinforced plastics grinding, 241, 242 centerless grinding of zirconia ceramics, 155, 160 ceramic coatings grinding, 234, 235 ceramics, 148, 176, 212, 213
material removal mechanisms, 213, 216 characteristics aluminum nitride (AIN) ceramics, 164, 176 chemical vapor deposited silicon carbide grinding, 242 concept, 113, 149, 150 conventional grinding and, 125, 128, 134,143,244 current characteristics during, 208, 209 cylindrical grinding on turning center, 134, 136 double, side grinding, 220, 222 dressing mechanism, 205 ED truing technique, 151, 153 effect on
SiAlON grinding, 112,134,136
Si3N4 grinding, 132, 133,140,142
WC, Co grinding, 132, 133 electrical aspects of, 208, 211 electrical behavior, 151, 153
during predressing, 117, 118, 151, 153, 154 electrochemical grinding and, 204, 205 electrodischarge truing technique, 115, 117
elements, 114,149 etched layer with coolants, 210 experimental setup, 119, 121 grinding fluid, 120 grinding wheels, 120 materials, 121 measuring instrument, 121 power supply, 121 glasses material removal mechanisms, 213, 216 grinding of ceramics on vertical grinding center, 226, 230 rotary surface grinder, 225 grinding ratio, 130, 134, 143 grinding wheel in applications of, 209, 211 hard steels grinding, 240, 241 ideal wheel conditions for, 210 influence of bond material, 122, 23 power sources, 123, 125 lap grinding, 222, 225 large optical glass substrates grinding, 237 of materials, 211, 213 mechanism, 118, 119,154, 155, 204, 206,302 microspherical lenses grinding, 237 mirror, like grinding of carbon fiber reinforced plastics, 241, 242 modified ELID dressing grinding, 127, 130 other grinding techniques and, 216, 218 oxide layer with coolants, 210 precision internal grinding, 237, 239 principle, 114, 115,149, 150, 204, 206 SEM and AFM studies, 138, 139 side grinding, 219, 220 silicon carbide grinding, 242 stages of, 206 steps, 115, 149 stock removal and, 221 surface aspect of ground workpiece, 222 surface modifying effects of aluminum nitride (AIN) ceramics analysis of modified surface, 174, 176
experimental setup, 164, 167 observations of ground surface, 167, 172 surface evaluation and testing, 165 surface modifying effect, 168, 172, 174 surface, roughness cutting speed effect on, 227 feed rate effect on, 228 grit size effect on, 226 patterns for #4000 mesh size wheel, 227 system, 216, 217 components, 206, 208 techniques, 114, 149, 155, 302 technology, 302 truing mechanism, 207, 208 ultraprecision grinding of aspheric mirror, 235, 237 ultraprecision grinding with, 135, 139 volume of material removed and grinding force, 228 wheels characteristics for, 209, 211
ELID, grinding wheel in, process observation using CCD microscope tribosystem, 301, 311 tribological properties of, 301, 311 contact pressure and wear rate, 310 experimental method, 303, 304 experimental result and discussion, 304, 308 friction coefficient and wear rate, 310, 311 friction property, 305, 307, 308 load and wear rate, 307, 308 wear process, 304, 305 wear property of sapphire pin, 305, 308 tribology and, 307, 309, 311 wear properties under dry grinding condition, 303, 308
ELID technique applications, 218, 242 bearing steels grinding, 230, 234 roughness vs traverse and plunge grinding, 230, 231 roundness vs traverse and plunge grinding, 233waviness vs traverse and plunge grinding, 230, 232, 234 carbon fiber reinforced plastics grinding, 241, 242 ceramic coatings grinding, 234, 235 chemical vapor deposited silicon carbide grinding, 242 double, side grinding, 220, 222 grinding of ceramics on vertical grinding center, 226, 230 rotary surface grinder, 225 hard steels grinding, 240, 241 lap grinding, 222, 225 large optical glass substrates grinding, 237 microspherical lenses grinding, 237 mirror, like grinding of carbon fiber reinforced plastics, 241, 242 other grinding techniques and, 216, 218 precision internal grinding, 237, 239 side grinding, 219, 220 silicon carbide grinding, 242 surface, roughness cutting speed effect on, 227 feed rate effect on, 228 grit size effect on, 226 patterns for #4000 mesh size wheel, 227 ultraprecision grinding of aspheric mirror, 235, 237 volume of material removed and grinding force, 228
ELID technology, 216, 218
Experimental procedure strength and depth of grinding damage, 90, 96 grinding, 90, 91 grinding procedure for, 94, 96 grit depth of cut, 91 strength testing, 91, 92
F
Ferrite ceramics, laser, assisted grinding, 294, 295
Fine ceramics ductile, mode ultra, smoothness grinding, see Ductile, mode ultra, smoothness grinding

G
Germanium, inclined single, point cutting, 69
Giant magnetostrictive actuator (GMA) technology, 21, 25
Glasses ELID grinding material removal mechanisms, 213, 216 lapping process, 193, 248 properties of, 11, 15
GMA technology, see Giant magnetostrictive actuator technology
GOE91 glass ductile scratching on, 13, 14 force data during ductile scratching test, 14
Grinding, see also Ceramics grinding; ELID grinding and brittle materials, 4, 9 debris, 67, 81 energy brittle fracture energy, 74, 78 machining approach to ceramics grinding, 70, 72, 79 plowed surface area analysis, 75, 78, 79 plowed surface energy, 75, 79, 82 specific grinding energy, 72, 77 workpiece properties, 75, 79, 82 longitudinal grinding, 106, 139, 140 ratio (G, ratio) in ELID grinding, 130, 134 strategy for minimum grinding time, 105 transverse grinding, 106, 139, 140 wheel #140 grit, size wheel, 139 #325 grit, size wheel, 138 #4000 grit, size wheel, 138, 143 #6000 grit, size wheel, 110, 140, 141 wheel in ELID grinding, 209, 211 cast, iron, bonded diamond, 209, 210 cast, iron fiber, bonded diamond (CIFB, D), 211 cubic boron nitride (cBN), 211
Grinding damage, strength and depth of experimental procedure to determine, 90, 96
grinding, 90, 91 grinding procedure for, 94, 96 grit depth of cut, 91 strength testing, 91, 92
Grinding ratio (G, ratio), 110, 143
Ground strength HPSN ceramic, 97, 99 physical meaning of critical grit depth of cut, 101 RBSN ceramic, 96, 97 zirconia, toughened alumina, 99, 100 zirconia, toughened porous SiC, 99, 100

H
Hard and brittle materials, mirror surface finishing, 302
Hardened tool steel drill bar, highefficiency belt centerless grinding, 190, 192
High, efficiency belt centerless grinding benefits, 192 for ceramic materials, 179, 192 experiments, 183, 184 for M7 hardened tool steel drill bar, 190, 192 objectives, 182 problem definition, 181, 182 problem encountered and possible reasons, 191 results of experiments, 184, 190
High, efficiency grinding, experiments, 111, 112,119, 121
High, MRR grinding, 111, 112,120
Honing alumina and zirconium oxide, 316 ceramic materials, 316, 317 silicon nitride, 317
Hot isostatic pressed silicon nitride (HIPSN), 30,44, 46
Hot isostatic pressing (HIP) fabrication, 259
Hot pressed silicon carbide (HPSQ ceramic, 30, 34, 36, 38, 45, 49, 52,91
Hot, pressed silicon nitride (HPSN) ceramic, 90 ductility, 293 grinding of, 93
ground strength, 97, 99 test conditions for, 93, 94
HPSN ceramic, see Hot, pressed silicon nitride (HPSN) ceramic

I
Indentation fracture mechanics approach lateral cracking and crushing, 65, 67 median, radial cracks, 55, 67 moving indentor, 62, 67 static indentor, 57, 62
Indentation test of brittle materials, temperature rises in plastic zone, 19, 20
Initiation, growth, fracture process, 9
In, process dressing concept,113 grinding force, 113, 114 principle, 113 technologies, 218
Interval ELID grinding, 238 current fluctuation in, 238

L
Lapping of ceramics, see also Ultrasonic lapping double fracture model in, 257, 261 apparatus, 260, 261 experimental procedures, 258, 261 materials, 258, 260 methodology, 261 experimental methodology, 248, 249 workpiece material properties, 249 experimental results, 249, 255 grain size distribution, 255 MRR vs grain size, 250, 253, 254 MRR vs time, 250, 252 surface roughness vs grain size, 250, 251 surface roughness vs time, 250 process, 247, 248
Lapping process, 193, 201, 247, 248, see also Ultrasonic lapping acoustic emission monitoring, 193, 201 data analysis, 197, 201 energy per unit time analysis, 198, 201 experimental conditions, 198
experimental procedure, 197 experimental setup, 195, 196 methodology, 195, 197 related work on, 194, 195 workpiece material properties, 196 RBSN ceramic, 103
Laser, assisted grinding of ceramics experimental results and discussions, 295, 297 experimental setup, 294, 295 ground surface with laser heat, 298 ground surface without heat, 297 micro, fracture, 296 problem statement, 294 stock removal mechanism, 297, 299
Lateral cracking and crushing, 65, 67 indentation fracture mechanics approach,65, 67
Load/crack length relations, 59, 62, 64
Longitudinal grinding, transverse rupture strength vs uncut chip thickness, 62, 63, 106

M
Machine tools for ductile grinding ceramics, 18, 27 technologies of, 21, 27
Machining approach to ceramics grinding grinding debris, 67, 81 grinding energy and mechanism, 70, 72, 81 brittle fracture energy, 74, 76, 78 plowed surface area analysis, 78, 79 plowed surface energy and workpiece properties, 79, 81 specific grinding energy, 72, 74 microscopy of scratches and ground surfaces, 67, 71
Machining of ceramic materials, see also Ultrasonic machining cooling lubrication, 320, 325 cleaning system, 324, 25 feed system, 324 physiological, ecological and economic aspects, 323, 24 selection, 320, 323 developments in, 313, 325
grinding with lapping kinematics, 317, 320 application and prospect, 318, 320 machining process, 318, 319 process technology, 317, 318 honing, 316, 317 material and structural properties influence, 317 technological investigations, 316, 317 ultrasonic machining, 327, 350
Macro, fracture, 296
Magnetic heads super polishing, 283, 291 experimental results, 286, 291 material removal, 286, 287 methodology, 285 related works, 284, 285 roughness and profile, 287
Material removal rates (MRR), 18, 110, 112,128
Median, radial cracks, indentation fracture mechanics approach, 55, 67
#140 Mesh, size wheel ductile, mode ultra, smoothness grinding, 30, 46
#325 Mesh, size wheel, 136, 138, 139
#600 Mesh, size wheel, 136, 139
#800 Mesh, size wheel, 30, 36, 38, 44
#1200 Mesh, size wheel, 136, 139
#1500 Mesh, size wheel, 30
#2000 Mesh, size wheel, 135, 136, 139
#4000 Mesh, size wheel, 110, 135, 136,138, 139
#6000 Mesh, size wheel, 136, 139
#8000 Mesh, size wheel, 136, 139
Metal, bonded diamond grinding wheels, 110, 118,148,151
Metals and ceramics, 1, 4 fracture toughness, 1, 2 machining, 257
M7 hardened tool steel drill bar high, efficiency belt centerless grinding, 190, 192
Micromachining methods, 258
Microscopy of scratches and ground surfaces, machining approach, 67, 71
Mirror finish grinding, 110, 112,135, 143,148
Modified ELID dressing grinding, ELID grinding and, 127, 130
Modulus of rupture, 110
Monocrystalline diamond lapping, of ceramics, 247, 256
Moving indentor, indentation fracture mechanics approach, 62, 67
Multipurpose ultraprecision machine tool (MUPMT), 21, 22

N
Nanoindentation scratching apparatus, 10
NC grinding machine, 48, 49
Nonmetallic materials, see Ceramics
Noritake AFG, M grinding fluid, 230
Noritake AGF, M grinding fluid, 120

P
Physical meaning of critical grit depth of cut, ground strength, 101
Plowed surface area analysis, grinding energy and, 75, 78, 79
Plowed surface energy, 75, 79, 82
Polycrystalline diamond lapping, of ceramics, 247, 256
Porous SiC ceramic, 90, 94
Profilometry, 32
Pulverization phenomenon, 213

Q
Quasiplastic cutting mechanism, see Ductile, mode grinding

R
RBSN ceramic, see Reaction, bonded silicon nitride ceramic
Reaction, bonded silicon nitride (RBSN) ceramic, 90 depth of damage, 101, 103 lapping method, 103 grinding debris, 67, 68 grinding test conditions for, 95 ground strength, 96, 97
lapping method for, 103 test conditions for, 93, 94
Resinoid, bonded diamond wheels, 95
Resinoid, bonded wheel, 111, 112

S
Sapphire pin, wear property of, 305, 307
Scanning electron micrograph, 110
Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), 110,138,143
SiAlON grinding, 112,134,136
SiC spherical lens mold, see Ceramic spherical lens molds
Silicon, inclined single, point cutting, 69
Silicon carbide (SiC), 88, 90
Silicon nitride (Si3N4) ceramics, 88, 121,140 bending strength, 143 effect of ELID on grinding, 132, 133 ELID centerless grinding, 157, 158 flexural strength, 61, 139, 143 grinding, 112, 132, 133, 135, 140, 142 honing, 317 normal force per grit, 61 surface roughness    by AFM, 138, 139
Si3N4, see Silicon nitride (Si3N4) ceramics
Si3N3 ceramics, laser, assisted grinding, 294, 295,299
Sintered reaction bonded silicon nitride (SRBSN), 121, 135
Sintered silicon carbide (SSC), 30
Sintered silicon nitride (SSN), c,eep feed grinding, 30, 346
Specific grinding energy, 17, 18, 72, 77 average uncut chip cross, sectional area, 72, 73 underformed chip thickness and, 76, 77
Static indentor, indentation fracture mechanics approach, 57, 62
Steady, state grinding force, 113, 114
Straight metal, bonded wheels, 120
Strain energy, 9
Stress distribution, in workspace during cutting, 7, 8
Structural ceramics, 110, 111
Stylus profilometer, 33
Surface grinder, 30, 32T
Thermal, tribo system, 293
Transverse grinding, 106, 139, 140 transverse rupture strength versus uncut chip thickness for, 62, 63
TRC 5 glass force data during brittle scratching on, 13 indentation, scratching on, 9, 12, 13
Tribological properties ELID, grinding wheel, 301, 311 contact pressure and wear rate, 310 experimental method, 303, 304 experimental result and discussion, 304, 308 friction coefficient and wear rate, 310, 311 friction property, 305, 307, 308 load and wear rate, 307, 308 wear process, 304, 305 wear property of sapphire pin, 305, 308
Tungsten carbide, grinding, 112

U
Ultraprecision machining center, 23, 25, 27
Ultra, smoothness grinding coarse, grain, size diamond wheels, 30, 53 experimental procedure, 30, 32 method, 46, 49 results, 49, 51 table speed influence, 32, 39 wheel speed influence, 39, 43 workpiece material influence, 43, 46
Ultrasonic, assisted grinding, 328, 329, 342, 350 alumina, 346, 349, 350 conventional grinding and, 345 cross, peripheral grinding, 348, 350 face grinding, 346, 348 force, controlled feed speed, 348 tool, path, controlled feed speed, 347, 348 fundamentals, 342, 344 machinability of ceramic materials, 344, 345 surface grinding, 345, 346 creep feed grinding, 345, 346 pendulum grinding, 345
Ultrasonic lapping conventional face die, sinking, 334, 339 abrasive, 338, 339 lapping pressure, 338 with rotational superposition, 339, 341 vibrational amplitude, 334, 338 wear of shape, generating counterpart, 339, 340 fundamentals, 330, 334 machinability of material, 334, 335 path machining, 341, 342 removal mechanisms, 332, 334 technology, 328, 330, 342
Ultrasonic machining, see also Machining of ceramic materials ceramic materials, 327, 350 technology, 328, 330 ultrasonic, assisted grinding, 328, 329, 342, 350 cross, peripheral grinding, 348, 350 face grinding, 346, 348 fundamentals, 342, 344 machinability of ceramic materials, 344, 345 surface grinding, 345, 346 ultrasonic lapping, 330, 342 conventional face die, sinking, 334, , 341 fundamentals, 330, 334 machinability of material, 334, 335 path machining, 341, 342 removal mechanisms, 332, 334
W
WC, Co grinding, effect of ELID grinding, 132, 133
Wheel bond material effect on dressing current, 122 effect on grinding force, 123
Workpiece properties, grinding energy and, 75, 79, 82

Z
Zirconia ceramics, 88, 258 ELID centerless grinding of, 155, 160 ferrules produced    by ELID centerless grinding, 158,160 honing, 316 laser, assisted grinding, 294, 295, 299
surface profile obtained using the
#4000 wheel, 158, 159 surface roughness for grinding, 158, 159 in, feed speed and, 157 total depth of cut and, 158
Zirconia, toughened alumina ceramic,
90, 94, 258, 261 depth of damage, 101, 103 grinding test conditions for, 96
Zirconia, toughened HPSN, 90
Zirconia, toughened porous SiC, ground strength, 90, 99, 100
Zirconia, toughened RBSN, 90
Zirconium oxide, see Zirconia ceramics
ZnS, load/crack length relations, 59
ZrO2 ceramics, see Zirconia ceramics
ZTA, see Zirconia, toughened alumina ceramic