TECHNICAL SOURCES: Thermal Damage, Residual Stress and Grinding
Because thermal damage is usually the limiting factor to grinding operations, controlling heat is important to good grinding practices. The effects of excess heat in a workpiece appear in many different ways ranging from obvious workpiece burn, to changes in hardness, to changes in compressive stresses, to changes in metallurgical structure and composition. Controlling thermal damage can include changes in process parameters such as feed rate, wheel characteristics such as bond structure and type of abrasive grain, dressing techniques, fluid types or fluid delivery. There are many variables that affect the flow of energy that creates undesirable metallurgical changes in the workpiece. Below are some of the publications relating to grinding temperatures and thermal damage available through the Abrasive Engineering Society,
REVISED 10/22/04


  1. "Grinding Stresses" by Grinding Wheel Institute. A collection of technical papers from trade magazines, technical conferences and other meetings discussing the topic. More information
  2. "Low Stress Grinding" by Guy Bellows describes methods to reduce heat damage when grinding metals. Available from AES. More information
  3. "Surface Integrity" section 18.3 of the Machining Data Handbook includes guidelines for controlling stress in abrasive machining process. Guideline available free on request
  4. A bibliography of resources for residual stress including publications in the AES library,some of which may be available request
  1. "Thermal Design of Processes" Chapter 6 of Tribology of Abrasive Machining Processes by Dr. Ioan Marinescu, 2004 (available from AES). One of the most complete discussions of surface damage,thermal modeling,temperatures in grinding, and partitioning of energy in grinding. Collaborators for the book include W.B. Rowe, a researcher known for his work on thermal aspects of grinding. Includes references to all major studies, modeling formulas and concepts.
  2. "Influence of Process Design on Residual Grinding Stresses" by E. Brinksmeier. 2003 Paper 15 in the proceedings of the 1st European Conference on Grinding.(Available from AES). Well-known researcher Brinksmeier summarizes what is known about residual stresses and its causes, as well as strategies to prevent thermal damage.
  3. “Grinding Temperatures” Chapter 9 of Principles of Abrasives Processes by Dr. Milton Shaw. 1996. This book is a good overview of work that has been done to understand heat transfer in grinding. Here is a picture of the technical problems with trying to measure heat transfer and effects of coolants, changes in dressing techniques, etc. Shaw includes an excellent review of research on grinding temperatures and thermal damage.
  4. “Grinding temperatures and thermal damage”, Chapter 6 of Grinding Technology by Dr. S. Malkin, SME 1996. Like the Shaw book above, this is a good overview with a set of references to other significant work. Dr. Malkin has done extensive work on heat in grinding and many of his graduate students continue work. For example a recent paper appearing in NAMRI proceedings discussed the effects of coolants on temperatures in the grinding zone.
  5. “Avoiding Thermal Damage in Grinding” by Dr. Trevor Howes, in the 1990 Joint Industry Conference of the Abrasive Engineering Society, 1990. Excerpt available on-line.
  6. “The Limitation of Workpiece Burn in the Creep Feed Process”, Chapter 4 of Creep Feed Grinding by Andrews, Howes, and Pearce, Industrial Press 1985. This and the above publication reflect the work of Dr. Trevor Howes at the University of Connecticut and provide a quick overview of thermal problems.
  7. “Thermally induced damage in grinding” by R. Snoeys, and others and appears in Grinding Theory, Techniques and Troubleshooting edited by Dr. Chander Bhateja. page 206. The paper appears also in CIRP Annuals Vol 27, No. 1, 1978.
  8. “ Principles of grinding .. part IV by Robert S. Hahn and Richard Lindsay, appears in Grinding Theory, Techniques and Troubleshooting edited by Dr. Chander Bhateja. pages 29-36.
  9. A large number of SME technical papers, which are also available through AES, relate to grinding and temperatures. Following are some of those publications:
  10. Other trade publishers offer a range of technical papers on thermal damage and residual stress. Here are some available through AES in pdf format published by Trans Tech Publications (prices are set by Trans Tech):
    1. #K238-95 High-Precision Low-Damage Grinding of Polycrystalline SiC by L. Yin,and others. Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology (abstract available)
    2. #K257-195 Influence of Different Grinding Processes on Surface and Subsurface Characteristics of Carbide Tools,B. Denkena and C. Spengler University of Hanover, Germany (abstract available)
    3. #K259-233 Surface Quality Studies with Respect to Grinding Burn of New Typical Nickel-based Alloys by M Chen Shanghai, China (abstract available)
    4. #K259-254 Theoretical Analysis of Surface Grinding Temperature Field by Cup Wheel by Lin, Q.H. Yuan, H.L. Zhang and others, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China (abstract available)
    5. #K259-221 Study on Service Performance Evaluation of Grinding Coolants by P.Q. Ge, J.H. Cheng, L. Wang and others Shandong University China (abstract available)
    6. #K259-249 Application of Pitch Arc Moving Heat Source Model in Grinding Temperature Field of Disk Workpiece by B. Lin, S.H. Chen, H.L. Zhang, and others Tianjin University China (abstract available)
    7. #K259-481 Change of Residual Stress after Grinding Al2O3 Ceramics by X.L. Tian1 and A.B. Yu Institute of Armored Force, Beijing, China (abstract available)

Technical Papers in the AES Library
Following is a bibliography of papers in the AES technical library that discuss thermal aspects of grinding. Until more complete information and abstracts are posted online, please contact AES for more information about articles and their availability.

#0033 Thermal Aspects Of Grinding With CBN Wheels By A.S. Lavine, S. Malkin, T.C. Jen
#0192 Thermal Aspects Of Creep-Feed Grinding And Effective Coolant Application By J. Shibata, S. Yonetsu
#0200 Thermally Induced Grinding Damage In Superalloy Materials By J.A. Kovach, S. Malkin
#0307 Thermally Induced Damage In Grinding By R. Snoeys, K.U. Leuven, M. Maris, B.J. Peters
#0420 Avoidance Of Thermal Damage In Grinding And Prediction Of The Damage Threshold By W.B. Rowe, J.A. Pettit, A. Boyle, J. L. Moruzzi
#0625 Thermal Damage: Grinding Vs. Hard Turning By Konig W.
#0661 A General Thermal Model For Grinding With Slotted Or Segmented Wheel By H.W. Zheng, H.Gao
#0698 Thermal Compensation Of Grinding Machines Using Neural Networks By Luiz A.M De Campos Bicudo, University Of Sao Paulo, Brazil; ..
#0718 Thermal Aspects Of Ceramic Grinding By Shao-Xiong Liang, Ioan D.Marinescu And Oven F.Devereux
#0956 Thermal Aspects Of Grinding: Heat Transfer To Workpiece, Wheel, And Fluid By A. S. Lavine, T. C. Jen
#0957 A Simple Model For Convective Cooling During The Grinding Process By A. S. Lavine
#1187 A General Model For Grinding With Slotted Or Segmented Wheel By H. W. Zheng, H. Gao
#1217 Avoiding Thermal Damage In Grinding By T. D. Howes, H. Gupta
#1261 Minimizing Thermal Damage Of Aerospace Components Using Coolant Nozzle And Coolant System Optimization By R. B. Mindek Jr., J. A. Webster
#1367 Fast Sensor Systems For The Monitoring Of Workpiece And Tool In Grinding By H. K. Tonshoff, B. Karpuschewski, C. Regent
#1401 Thermal Analysis Of The Grinding Process By N. R. Des Ruisseaux, R. D. Zerkle
#1408 Thermal Aspects Of Grinding Part 1 - Energy Partition By S.Malkin, R. B. Anderson
#1409 Thermal Aspects Of Grinding Part 2 Surface Temperatures And Workpiece Burn By S. Malkin
#1411 Thermal Analysis Of The Wear Of Single Abrasive Grains By R. F. Scrutton, G. K. Lal
#0188 Numerical Optimization Of Thermal Behavior Of Machine Tools By J. Jedrzejewski, J. Kaczmarek, Z. Kowal, Z. Winiarski
#0612 Analytical And Experimental Investigation Of Burnout In Creep-Feed Grinding By C. Guo, S. Malkin
#0664 Thermally Induced Damage In Grinding Keynote Paper For Cirp-Stc-Grinding By R. Snoeys, K.U. Leuven, L. Maris, N.F. Wo, J. Peters, K.U. Leuven
#0957 A Simple Model For Convective Cooling During The Grinding Process By A. S. Lavine
#1361 An Investigation Into The Work Hardening Induced Into The Surface Of Machined Materials By D. Haslam
#1362 Grinding Of Ceramics And Other Materials Using Ultra-Hard Abrasives By T. D. Howes
#0315 Comparative Load Capacity Evaluation Of CBN-Finished Gears By Raymond J. Drago, Pe
#0348 Study On The Grinding Condition To Prevent The Thermal Displacement Of A Work Attracted By Magnetic Chuck By S. Okuyama, T. Nishihara, S. Kawamura/N. Ikawa
#0658 An Advance In Modeling Of Thermal Effects In The Grinding Process By Prof.W.B.Rowe, M.N. Morgan
#0711 Model Of Gear Grinding Process By Bogdan W.Kruszinski, Technical University Of Lodz, Poland
#0967 Temperature Measurement In Grinding By S. C. E. Black, W. B. Rowe, H. S. Qi, B. Mills
#091 New Evidence On The Contact Zone In Grinding - Contact Length, Sliding And Cutting Regions By D.Y. Gu, J.G. Wager
#0217 Beneficial Compressive Residual Stress Resulting From CBN Grinding By Johnson,A.G.
#0406 A Standard For Proper Selection Of Water Soluble Type Grinding Fluids By Toshikatsu Nakajima, Shinya Tsukamoto
#0666 Residual Stress In Grinding By Prof. J. Peters, Prof. R. Snoeys, Dr. M. Maris
#1305 Two And Three Dimensional Finite Element Creep Feed Grinding Simulations. Vol. 1 By P. M. T. Furdson
#0055 Straightness Metrology Applied To A 100-Inch Travel Creep Feed Grinder By Bryan,B.J.,Carter,L.D.
#0508 Straightness Metrology Applied To A 100-Inch Travel Creep Feed Grinder By James P. Bryan And Donald L. Carter
#0960 Steel Composition Effects On Grindability And Rolling Contact Fatigue Resistance Of Bearing Steels By A. A. Torrance, R. J. Stokes, T. D. Howes
#1011 Photothermal Sensing Techniques For Measuring Material Properties And Near-Surface Defects By G. Goch, B. Schmitz, M. Reick
#ths01 A Numerical Investigation into the Mechanisms of Residual Stresses induced by Surface Grinding, By Mofid Mahidi. PhD thesis.

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